Connecting the dots: a peek into the heart of Yayoi Kusama

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Song of a Manhattan Suicide Addict. This video installation shows the artist singing an original song about her experience dealing with depression. A moving sequence of artworks forms the backdrop. Taking its title from Kusama’s acclaimed debut novel, published in 1978, this work provides an insight into her worldview and drive to create art.
Collection of the Artist. ©YAYOI KUSAMA. Courtesy of Ota Fine Arts, Tokyo/Singapore, David Zwirner, New York

One room is invaded by countless brightly colored polka dots on gargantuan whimsical tulip sculptures; another equally yellow room is populated by a horde of black dots from ceiling to floor.

It is a dizzying experience for those uninitiated in the works of Japanese avant-garde artist Yayoi Kusama. The octonegerian, 88 this year, is a major figure in the art world who enjoys a cult-like following for her infinity nets, dots and phallic artworks. She is also Japan’s most celebrated contemporary artist and represented the country at the 1993 Venice Biennale.

Gallery A – 2

Dots Obsession exemplifies Kusama’s endless fascination with our place in this world. First created in 1996, this on-going series of installations features polka-dotted spaces with suspended biomorphic or spherical inflatables in different color combinations. These are joyous environments that visitors can wander into and be enveloped by sensuous dotted forms. Collection of the artist. ©YAYOI KUSAMA. Courtesy of Ota Fine Arts, Tokyo/Singapore, Victoria Miro Gallery, London

Kusama’s new works from the ongoing painting series “My Eternal Soul” are on display for the first time in the world at National Gallery Singapore, a public art gallery on the island, from now till September. The exhibition is the largest survey of her work in Southeast Asia, with over 120 artworks spanning seven decades of her career.

Explaining the idea behind the exhibition, Adele Tan, a co-curator of the exhibition says that Kusama serves as an effective introduction to different art movements.

“We are using Kusama as a stepping stone to explore other art movements that may have left an impact on Asia, which is our focus at the National Gallery Singapore,” says  Tan. 

She adds: “Kusama is special given her long history, her connection to key 20th century art movements such as Surrealism, Pop and Minimalism, as well as being one of the world’s leading contemporary artists.”

Narcissus Garden at City Hall Chamber

Narcissus Garden (2017). In 1966, Kusama carried out one of her boldest acts —installing 1,500 mass-produced reflective balls in the grounds of the 33rd Venice Biennale, even though she had not been invited to exhibit there. She had wanted to connect art with everyday life, thus freeing it from the confines of the wealthy elite. Narcissus Garden has continued to be exhibited in recent years, with versions of it displayed in many different locations around the world, both indoors and outdoors. Collection of the artist ©YAYOI KUSAMA.

To date, Kusama has amassed a vast body of work that cuts across different disciplines – filmmaking, painting, drawing, sculpture, installation, fashion, poetry, fiction and public spectacles.

The process of curating Kusama’s work took one year and involved multiple parties – the three galleries representing Kusama, her studio, private lenders, public institutions as well as the Queensland Art Gallery & Gallery of Modern Art (QAGOMA).

Life is the Heart of a Rainbow

Life Is the Heart of a Rainbow (2017). Kusama began her epic painting series ‘My Eternal Soul’ in 2009, initially intending to complete 100 canvases. Still ongoing, the series now comprises over 500 paintings, 24 of which are featured here. They contain familiar motifs from Kusama’s work over the decades, such as eyes, profiles, dots and nets, but also introduce new forms and colours, continually extending her rich visual language.
©YAYOI KUSAMA, Courtesy of Ota Fine Arts, Tokyo/Singapore, Victoria Miro Gallery, London, David Zwirner, New York

“We made a selection of works from the 1950s to the present, tracing Kusama’s use of nets and dots, which have become her iconic motifs; her strategies of repetition and immersion as seen in her infinity mirror rooms and large-scale installations such as Narcissus Garden; and her engagement with the body through installation, performance, sculpture and painting,” Tan shares.

The Kusama evolution

Infinity Mirrored Room – Gleaming Lights of the Souls. First created in 1965, Kusama’s infinity mirror rooms extend the repetitive approach of her net and dot paintings into an immersive sensory experience. Ranging in format from small peep boxes to room-scale installations, these kaleidoscopic environments invite contemplation within an infinitely repeating, expanded space.Collection of the Artist ©YAYOI KUSAMA, Courtesy of Ota Fine Arts, Tokyo/Singapore, Victoria Miro Gallery, London

Infinity Mirrored Room – Gleaming Lights of the Souls. First created in 1965, Kusama’s infinity mirror rooms extend the repetitive approach of her net and dot paintings into an immersive sensory experience. Ranging in format from small peep boxes to room-scale installations, these kaleidoscopic environments invite contemplation within an infinitely repeating, expanded space. Collection of the artist ©YAYOI KUSAMA. Courtesy of Ota Fine Arts, Tokyo/Singapore, Victoria Miro Gallery, London

Born in Matsumoto, Nagano prefecture in Japan in 1929, Kusama is the youngest daughter of an affluent seedling merchant family. When she started painting at the age of 10, Kusama was already using dots and nets as motifs to make paintings in watercolors, pastels and oil.   

Childhood for Kusama was an unhappy period.

In an interview with Financial Times, the grand dame of avant-garde art called her parents “a real pain”.

At the same time, Kusama also experienced hallucinations where flowers with human-like facial expressions would speak to her. During such periods, she would rush home to create artworks.

Gallery C – 2

With All My Love for the Tulips, I Pray Forever (2013). Kusama made her first environmental installation in 1963. These invite audiences to enter a space full of repeated forms and images, such as phallic objects and dots. This work invokes the hallucinations that Kusama experienced at a young age. It also evokes her concept of self-obliteration – the giant tulips merge into a white room covered entirely in psychedelic dots, becoming a part of the space around them. Collection of the artist . ©YAYOI KUSAMA. Courtesy of Ota Fine Arts, Tokyo/Singapore, Victoria Miro Gallery, London, David Zwirner, New York

It also did not help that her father was a serial philanderer and (in the same Financial Times interview) she claims that her mother often sent her to spy on his sexual exploits. This experience traumatized Kusama and caused her to develop a permanent fear of the male organ and sex which she subsequently channeled into creating phalluses to overwhelm her fears.

“I make them and make them and then keep on making them, until I bury myself in the process. I call this process ‘obliteration’,” she told the FT.

When the war ended in 1948, Kusama took a course in Nihonga, in Kyoto. Nihonga is a term for a traditional Japanese painting that uses silk, paper, wood or plaster which started during the Meiji Period.

Unfortunately, Kusama disliked the rigidities of Nihonga and she started learning cubism and surrealism from magazines. She also started correspondence with the famous American artist Georgia O’Keeffe, who she credits for giving her the courage to go to New York in 1957.  

In New York, Kusama exhibited her large paintings, soft sculptures and environmental sculptures that use electric lights and mirrors. Soft sculptures are made of non-rigid and bendable materials like cloth, plastic and fibres, while environmental sculptures create or change the environment for the viewers.

Dots Obsession at UOB Cityhall Courtyard

Dots Obsession (2017). Collection of the artist. ©YAYOI KUSAMA. Courtesy of Ota Fine Arts, Tokyo/Singapore, Victoria Miro Gallery, London

In summarizing how Kusama’s work evolved throughout her career, Tan says, “When in New York and Europe in the 1960s, Kusama’s works aligned with the avant-garde and counter-cultural impulses of her peers. Then when she returned to Japan and voluntarily committed herself into a mental hospital in the 1970s, she began to experiment with box constructions as a result of a reduced work space and also started to write and publish fiction and poetry.”

THE SPIRITS OF THE PUMPKINS DESCENDED INTO THE HEAVENS

The Spirits of the Pumpkins Descended into the Heavens (2017). The humble pumpkin is one of Kusama’s most beloved motifs. The origin of her distinctive yellow- and-black color scheme, these whimsical, bulbous forms appear regularly in her paintings, prints, sculptures and installations. This work creates the illusion of a vast field of pumpkins stretching to infinity. ©YAYOI KUSAMA.

It is also worth noting that there is no one movement or style that Kusama cleaves to. She is someone who will respond to her immediate surroundings and the social climate of the time, adds Tan.

No matter how Kusama’s work evolves, one thing remains constant – the intensity of her focus when she works. That’s something of which she herself is acutely aware. As she told Harper’s Bazaar in 2016: “I am an artist. My work is my life. I have so much I want to do [that] I am determined to live until I am 300 years old. Each day I create a new world by making my art. I will never run out of ideas. All I hope to do in the time left is to turn as many of them into concrete forms as possible.”

Yayoi Kusama: Life Is The Heart Of A Rainbow at the National Gallery Singapore runs from  June 9 –  September 3,  2017.

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